Goa is a part of Konkan area. It has hills, low and highland areas. Geographically Goa has mainly three natural divisions namely the Lowlands, the Plateaus and the Mountain region.

Low Lands

The lowland areas in Goa are mainly along the coast which is about 110 kilometres long. Most rivers flow from the mountainous regions in the eastern part of the state to the lowlands in the west, and therefore this area is fertile. The western belt is thickly populated with settlements and is the primary draw for tourists because of its many attractions and beautiful beaches.

Plateau Lands

The plateau region in Goa is found between the mountainous region in the eastern part of the state and the lowlands in the west. The height of the plateau land ranges from 30 metres to 100 metres. This is the main region where plenty of laterite rock is found, which is then used for building houses. Some part of plateau land is called the ‘headland’. The land in the plateau region, however, is not always fertile, and fewer crops are grown here.

Mountainous Regions

The Sahyadri mountain range is located to the east of Goa. This region is under dense forest cover and shares its boundaries with the state of Karnataka. There are many streams and rivers that flow from this region towards the lowlands in the west. Inland waterways play an important role in the transportation of mineral ores from the mining sites.

Flora & Fauna

The forests in Goa provide important products namely bamboo, Maratha barks, chillar barks and bhirand among others. These are of great economic value, particularly in the rural settlements. Coconut trees are present across almost all of Goa except in the upper regions. The Western Ghats, which comprise the majority of the area in eastern Goa, have gained recognition as one of the world’s key biodiversity hotspots. The coastal plains, meanwhile, are made up of a complex network of wetlands, tidal marshes, and farmed paddy fields divided by canals, inland dykes, bays, lagoons, and creeks.

The marine biome of the Arabian Sea and the terrestrial forest biome of the Western Ghats both have an impact on Goa. Numerous ecosystems and habitats, including forests, ghats, alluvial plains, beaches, rivers, estuaries, mangroves, and wetlands may be found within this geography. There are both typical ecosystems as well as habitats like salt pans and rock pools. Microhabitats also play a crucial role in the breakdown of plant litter; one example is that of termite mounds. The biodiversity of each of these regions is starkly different, and depends upon a range of genetic and environmental variables.

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